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해양주권선언에 관한 자료송부에 관한 건

 
  • 작성자외무부 정무국 제1과장
  • 날짜1953년 9월 28일
  • 문서종류공한, 기안문
  • 문서번호외정 제1314호
  • 형태사항필사 국한문 
※ 본 문서는 해제정보만 서비스합니다. ※
 
별지 : 외무부장관이 고스포드에게 보내는 서한 및 관련자료해제
 
  • 발신자외무부장관
  • 수신자고스포드
  • 날짜1953년
  • 문서종류공한
  • 형태사항영어 
Dear Sir,
I have the honor to refer to your letter dated 27th August, 1953., concerning a manuscript for publications under the auspices of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs.
I had also received a letter from our Embassy in Washington issued on 20th August, 1953 regarding your communication with reference to the above mentioned issued on 5th August, 1953.
I have the pleasure as well to avail myself of the opportunity, occasioned by your communication, of committing of writing the following manuscript which, it is earnestly hoped, will find it possible help you authoritative work for the sake of completeness and ancuracy in the manuscript.
1. The Korean government established a "Syngman Rhee Line" by the residential proclamation of Sovereignty over Adjacent Seas which is to maintain peace between Korea an Japan after coming into force of the Japanese peace treaty, and we sometimes call that the conservation line is a Peace Line.
Our President Rhee in a proclamation said that the Government of the Republic of Korea holds and exercises national sovereignty over the shelf adjacent to Korea to protect, preserve, and utilize natural resources.
The proclamation added however, that the declaration does not interfere with rights of free navigation on the high seas, (See Presidential Proclamation of sovereignty over Adjecant Seas, decleared on January 18, 1952:,)
2. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent to the Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan a note Verbale dated January 29, 1952, pointing out the incompatibility of the Proclamation of the President of the Republic of Korea of January, 18, 1952, with the international principle of the freedom of High seas, etc. (See. The Japanese Ministry's Note Verbale No.8/A2 dated January 28, 1952.)
3. The Korean Government submitted and pointed out that the Korean proclamation is precedented and does it run counter to the principle of the freedom on the high seas as recognized by international law.
Territorial waters are generally recognized as extending three miles off shore although some states, such as the Soviet Union, claim a 12 mile radius.
But Proclamation of protective seas does not mean extension of territorial waters into the high seas. The special character of parts of the high seas that at the same time constitute adjacent seas has been recognized by many international bodies including the United Nations Commission on International law. We do not lack in precedents in the international community which recognize the special status of the adjacent seas.
Those who still adhere to the 19th century concept of the freedom on the high seas, claiming absolute freedom of fishing on adjacent seas, must be considered as being unaware of the evolution of international law,
4. The memorandum for the Korean Diplomatic Mission in Tokyo to forward to the Japanese Government as a replying note of the Government were sent on February 7, 1952. (See. The above mentioned Memorandum)
We in a memorandum said that the Government of the Republic of Korea desires to call the attention of the Japanese Government to the fact that the Korea proclamation in question is primarly designed for the preservation of peace between the two nations, for which no price could be too dear, etc.
Japan is Korean's closest neighbor, and there is very desire on our part to strengthen the bonds offriendship and fellowship between the two nations. The deep feeling of enmity held by the Korean people and by President Rhee --- who had been forced to flee into a life of exile -- against the Japanese imperialison abandons and needs no recounting. And we must line together, and in Japan's new awakening to the democratic way of life, it had been hoped that a new relationship of partnership in the common task of achieving peace and security in this part of the world would draw us closer together.
5. We had received American Embassy's Note No 167, dated Feburuary 11, 1952, expressing certain reservation of the Government of the United States of America with reference to the Proclamation of the President of the Republic of Korea issued on January 18, 1952 regarding the continental shelf and adjacent seas.
We said that the term "sovereignty" is interchangeable with the phrase "jurisction and control", and the marine zone declared around Korea by the said Proclamation is, as in the case of the United States Proclamations, never meant to be the extension of the Korean territorial waters which should remain, as a matter of couse, of the internationaly accepted width, irrespective of the Proclamation, and then Korean Soveregnty studiously stands clear of the right of navigation over the high seas and never means to get in the way of air traffic above them.
We pointed out that Korea is so immeasurably weak in fishery as to necessitate a special protective measure, preponderantly as the result of 40 years virtual Japanese monopoly of fishing even in Korean waters, and added if any rule promulgated or any measure taken to implement the said Proclamation should be activated gainst the nationals of the United States, it would be only to those that would act as shields for the reckless despoilers whom the long bitter past has thought the Koreans to regard with deep zuspicion which just for the sake their own survival and safety, must be suffered to remain as a healthy presantion vatll a very strong proof of their reformation removes it, etc. (See. Korean Ministry's Note dated February 13, 1952.)
6. We had received Chinese Embassy's Note dated June 11, 1952, expressing certain reservations of the rights and interests of the Government of the Republic of China. They expressed a deesly appreciating the sympathetic view of these Government of the considerations which led Our Government to issued the said Proclamation and their friendly willingness to cooperate with our Government in the handling of matters of common interests.
We answered that the Proclamation is never meant to extend the Korean territorial waters, and If any rule promulgated or any measure taken to implement the said proclamation should be activated against any one in despoilers or as shields for such despoilers, whom the past experience has taught the Koreans to regard with deep suspicion as detrimental to the effective preservation of marine resources in their adjacent seas. (See: Ministry's Note dated June 26, 1952)
7. We have receipt the British Legations communeation dated January 12, 1953.
We pointed out that the President of the Republic of Korea had never issued or internded to issue such a proclamation on any part of the high sea beyond territorial waters belonging to the Republic of Korea, and our conseration line has nothing whatever to do with the high sea privileges open to every nation, it concerns only the relation ship between Korea and Japan regarding the fishery and other marine products, etc.
We added that it is our earnest request that if Her majesty's Government are interested in maintaining peaceful relations among all Pacific nations, they should exert their gond offices in advising the Japanese to realize the necessity to some such peace line in order to establish and maintain peaceful relationship between Korea and Japan (See: Ministry's Note, dated 12th to the British Legation in Korea January, 1953.)
Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my (most) distinguished consideration


T. T. Yynn

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Korea.

Enclosure:
1. A copy of the presidential Proclamation of Sovereignty over Adjacent Seas.
2. A copy of the Japanese Note Verbale No 8/A2
3. A copy of the Memorandum for the Korean Diplomatic Mission in Tokyo to forward to the Japanese Government as a replying note of the Government.
4. A copy of the American Embassy's Note No.167, and Memorandum.
5. A copy of the Ministry's Note to the American Embassy,
6. A copy of the Chinese Embassy's Note.
7. A copy of the Ministry's Note to the Chinese Embassy.
8. A copy of the British Legation's Note.
9. A copy of the Ministry's Note to the British Legation.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Korea

28th September, 1953.

E. J. Gosford
3940 Cote des Neiges Rd., Montreal, P. Q., Canada.

I. Presidential Proclamation of sovereignty over Adjacent Seas
Supported by well-established international precedents and urged by the impelling need of safeguarding, once and for all, the interests of national welfare and defence, the President of the Republic of Korea hereby proclaims:
1. The Government of the Republic of Korea holds and exercises the national sovereignty over the shelf adjacent to the peninsular and insular coasts of the national territory, no matter how deep it may be, protecting, preserving and utilizing, therefore, to the best advantaged of national interests, all the natural resources, mineral and marine, that exist over the said shelf, on it, and beneath it known, or which may be discovered in the future.
2. The Government of the Republic of Korea holds and exercises the national sovereignty over the seas adjacent to the coasts of the peninsula and islands of the national territory, no matter what their depths may be, throughout the extension, as herebelow delineated, deemed necessary to reserve, protect conserve and utilize the resources and natural wealth of all kinds that may found on, in, or under the said seas, placing under the Government supervision particularly the fishing and marine hunting industries in order to prevent this exhaustible type of resources and natural wealth from being exploited to the disadvantage of the inhabitants of Korea, or deceased or destroyed to the detriment of the country.
3. The Government of the Republic of Korea hereby declares and maintains the lines of demarcation, as given below, which shall define and delineate the zone of control and protection of the national resources and wealth on, in or beneath the said seas placed under the jurisdiction and control of the Republic of Korea and which shall be liable to modification, in accordance with the circumstances arising from new discoveries, studies or interests that may come to light in future, The zone to be placed under the sovereignty and protection of the Republic of Korea shall consist of seas lying between the coasts of the peninsular and insular territories of Korea and the line of demarcation made from the Continuity of the following lines:
a. from the highest peak of U-Am-Ryung, Kyung-Pung-Kun, Ham-Kyong-Pukdo to the point.(42˚15'N - 130˚45'E )
b. from the point (420˚15'N - 130˚45'E ) to the point (38˚00'N - 132˚50'E )
c. from the point (38˚00'N - 132˚50'E ) to the point (35˚00'N - 130˚00'E )
d. from the point (35˚00'N - 130°00'E ) to the point (34˚40'N - 129˚10'E )
e. from the point (34˚40'N - 129˚10'E ) to the point (32˚00'N - 127˚00'E )
f. from the point (32˚00'N - 127˚00'E ) to the point (32˚00'N - 124˚00'E )
g. from the point (32˚00'N - 124˚00'E ) to the point (39˚45'N - 124˚00'E )
h. from the point (39˚45'N - 124˚00'E ) to the western point of Ma-An-Do, Sin-Do-Yuido, Yong-Chun-Kun, Pyung-An-Pukdo.
i. from the western point of Ma-An-Do to the point where a straight line drawn north meets with the western end of the Korean-Manchurian borderline.
4. This declaration of sovereignty over the adjacent seas does not interfere with the rights of free navigation on the high seas.

THE GAIMUSHO
No.8/A22
NOTE VERBALE
 

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs presents its compliments to the Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan and concerning the proclamation or the President of the Republic of Korea of January 18, 1952 claiming sovereignty over the shelf and seas adjacent to Korean territory has the honour to request the Mission to transmit the following statement to the Government of the Republic of Korea:
The Japanese Government considersp that the contents of the proclamation of the President of the Republic of Korea of January 18, 1952 not only are entirely incompatible with the long internationally established principle of the freedom of the high seas, but also run counter to the basic principle of international cooperation for the development and protection on an equal footing of the marine resources of the high seas. This unilateral proclamation is utterly untenable under any of the accepted ideas of international society, and therefore cannot be acquiesced in by the Japanese Government.
While the Japanese Government is preparing in good faith to enter into negotiation with the Government of the Republic of Korea for the adjustment of the fishing interests of both countries in adherence to the principle of friendly cooperation underlying the Peace Treaty signed at San Francisce and for the mutual prosperity of Japan and Korea, it can not but take a serious view of the attitude of the Korean Government in making the proclamation in question just as a conference on fisheries, among other subjects, is about to be opened between the two Governments. The Korean Government, in taking such a step, will be destroying the necessary base for the success of the negotiations, and it is much to be regretted that doube is thrown as to the good faith of the Korean Government in participating in the forthcoming conference.
Furthermore, in the proclamation the Republic of Korea appears to assume territorial rights over the islets in the Japan Sea known as Takeshime (otherwise known as Liancourt Rocks). The Japanese Government does not recognize any such assumption or claim by the Republic of Korea concerning these islets which are without question Japanese territory.
Tokyo. January 29, 1952.
The Korman Diplomatic Mission in Japan presents its compliments to the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and with reference to the latter's note of January 28, 1952 concerning the Japanese Government's view on the proclamation of the President of the Republic of Korea of January 18, 1952, has the honour to transmit to the Ministry a copy of the replying note of the Korean Government to the Japanese Government,
Enclosure: A copy of the replying note of the Korean Government to the Japanese Government

February 12, 1.952

The Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan presents its compliments to the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affirs and with reference to the latter's note of January 28, 1952 concerning the Japanese Government's view on the proclamation of the honour to transmit to the Ministry a copy of the replying note of the Korean Government to the Japanese Government.
Enclosure : A copy of the replying note of the Korean Government to the Japanese Government.

February 12, 1952

Ministry of Foreign Affairs REPUBLIC OF KOREA
In reference to the note of the Japanese Government dated January 28, 1952, as conveyed through the Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan, the Government of the Republic of Korea, wishes to point out, for the information and consideration of the Japanese Government:
1) That an objective study of international development and precedents relevant to the subject will go to establish the legitimacy and rightfulness of the Proclamation of the President of the Republic of Korea of January 18, 1952, done in accordance with a fully established privilege of a sovereign nation and with a view to protecting and zone of seas adjacent to their territories of Korea, the United States of America, Mexico, Argentine, Chile, Peru, Costa Rica, Saudi Arabia, etc. having already made, one after another, unilateral proclamations of more or less the same character;
2) That a judicious revions review of the past history of the Orient, a fair consideration of present disparity between Korea and Japan in fishing equipments, very largely the outcome of forty year's Japanese domination and virtual monopoly of fishery in Korea, and a just apprehension of troubles otherwise likely to overcloud our relations ceaselessly bear out, beyond any possible doubt, that the Proclamation under discussion is primarily designed, and indeed the sole safeguard, to ensure a permanent peace between the two nations;
3) That the so-called principle of freedom of high seas, in its absolute form, now fast failing to operate within adjacent seas of a Power, except in a very limited sense, and which Japan itself has contributed to nullify by failing to insist on its strict application in all the recent cases in which it was invelved, cannot be sd effectively wielded as a cudgel to force Korea into virbually yielding up one of its few means of bare sustenance
4) That the Government of the Republic of Korea, while it means to have its own protective zone as defined in the said Proclamation respected by other nations, pledges itself to respect, with all solemnity and fidelity, the similar senes of its neighbors that have already declared or may declare in future such zones in as legitimate and exercise of their sovereignty and within as reasonable bounds.
The Government of the Republic of Korea notes with uneasiness, particularly, the following passage found in the note of the Japanese Government:
Korean Government in taking such a step, will be destroying the necessary base for the success of the negotiation and it is much to be regretted that doubt is thrown as to the good faith of the Korean Government in participating in the forthcoming conference."
It is the view of the Korean Government that such conclusions as are made manifest in the above passage are entirely based upon misunderstandings of grave nature and that the Proclamation in question, if it has anything to do with the coming Korea-Japan Conference, properly understood, will lend soundness and permanency to the basis of friendly relations between Korea and Japan instead of endangering it in any manner. Furthermore, it feels constrained to express its apprehension that not the Proclamation itself but the rather unfortunate view of it as entertained by the Japanese Government and expressed in the particular passage quoted above will tend to hamper the smooth progress of the proposed negotiation, which, it earnestly hopes, will not be the case.
The Government of the Republic of Korea does not feel inclined to enter into full arguments, here in this note, over the ownership of Liancourt Rocks, known as "Dokdo" in Korea thought centuries, and merely wishes to remind the Japanese Government that SCAP, by SCAPIN No.677 dated January 29, 1946, explicitly excluded the islets from the territorial possessions of Japan and that again the same islets have been left outside of the MacArthur Line, facts that endorse and confirm the Korean claim to them, which is beyond any dispute.

No.167

American Embassy, Pusan,

February 11, 1952.

Excellency:
I have the honor to advise Your Excellency that the Government of the United States of America has taken note of the Proclamation issued by the President of the Republic of Korea on January 18, 1952 regarding Korean sovereignty over the continental shelves and certain water areas adjacent to the mainland and insular coasts of the Republic of Korea.
I am directed to inform Your Excellency that the Government of the United States of America regards with deep concern the provisions of this Proclamation. If carried into execution, this Proclamation would bring within the exclusive jurisdiction and control of the Republic of Korea wide ocean areas which have hitherto been regarded as high seas by all nations, and would in those waters and in the air spaces above supplant the free and untrammeled navigation of foreign vessels and aircraft bb such controls as the Republic of Korea, in the exercise of the sovereignty claimed, might apply. The disclaimer in Paragraph 4 does not lessen the concern of the United States Government since by the assertion of sovereignty, freedom of navigation in these areas might be claimed to be a Privilege granted b the Republic of Korea rather than a right deriving from international law.
Although the Proclamation purports to be supported by well-established international precedents, my Government is not aware of any accepted principle of international law which would qualify as a legitimate precedent for this purported extension of Korean sovereignty. In this regard, my Government wishes to call to the attention of the Republic of Korea, that, unlike the two Proclamations issued by the President of the United States of America on September 28, 1945 concerning United States policy with respect to the resources of the sentimental shelf and the conservation of contiguous high seas fisheries, the Korean Proclamation relates to Korean national sovereignty over the areas specified therein. The two United States Proclamations did not contemplate, nor in fact effect, any extension of the pre-existing territorial waters of the United States. On the contrary, the one hes specific reference to the natural resources of the subsoil and sea bed rather than to the subsoil and sea bed so, while the other relates only to the maintenance of the productivity of the fishery resources in contiguous high seas and prevides for joint action where one or more other states also have an interest in a fishery to be conserved.
With the foregoing considerations in mind, the Government of the United States of America desires to inform the Government of the Republic of Korea that it reserves all its interests and the interests of its nationals and vessels under the provisions of the Korean Proclamation in question, and under any measures designed to carry them into execution.
Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my most distinguished consideration.

MEMORANDUM
 

Part I : The United Government is very much interested in seeing a just and equitable settlement of the fishing problem and the other outstanding problems between Japan and Korea but believes that this is primarily a matter to be worked out between the two countries in the forthcoming negotiations. If is hoped that moderation on both sides and recognition of the community of interest between the two nations will lead to an equitable settlement.
Part II : The following is relevant international law and other background material.
1. The term "national sovereignty" denotes complete jurisdiction for all purposes.
2. The term "territorial waters" derived fom the fact that the littoral state has sovereignty over it. This distinguishes territorial waters from the high seas over which no nation has sovereignty.
3. Despite the Republic of Korea disclaimer, the Republic of Korea Proclamation is in effect equivalent to the claim that any nation can, by proclamation, convert the high seas into territorial waters.
4. The United States Presidential Proclamation of September 28, 1945, regarding the natural resources subsoil and sea bed of the continental shelf and the coastal fisheries in contiguous high seas did not purport to establish United States sovereignty over the high seas or the shelf. The United States has always claimed the extent of territorial waters as three miles and has refused to recognise all claims to territorial waters in excess. The United States has, however, exercised certain protective jurisdiction on the adjacent high seas at various distances more than three miles without claiming sovereignty over the place where jurisdiction was exercised, for example, in the case of revenue and hovering laws regarding smuggling.
5. The United States 1945 Proclamations resulted in several proclamations by Latin American countries purportedly based hereon, but actually asserting sovereignty over the high seas and amounting to a claim of right to extend the territorial waters. The United States has regularly taken exception thereto and reservediits rights thereunder. For example, the Salvador Constitution of 1950 provided that Salvador territory included the adjacent seas for two hundred marine miles including air space, sub-soil and the corresponding continental shelf. The United States informed the Salvador Government that it was deeply concerned by the implications; that under long-established principles of international law, universally agreed upon, the territorial sovereignty extends over a narrow belt of territorial waters beyond which lie the high seas; that the execution of the Salvador Constitution would bring within Salvador's exclusive jurisdiction wide areas considered high seas b all nations; that free navigation would be supplanted by such controls as Salvador in the exercise of its sovereignty might apply, aince despite the diaclaime in the Salvador Constitution that freedom of navigation in accord with accepted principles of international law was not affected, such freedom might, in view of the Salvador assertion of sovereignty, be claimed to be a privilege granted by Salvador rather than a right based on international law. The note added that together with the great majority of other maritime nations the United States had long adhered to the principle of a three marine mile belt for territorial waters, and informed Salvador that the United States would not consider its nationals, vessels or aircraft subject to the constitutional provision in question or any measures designed to carry it into execution.
6. The Tripartite Fisheries Convention signed by representatives of the United States, Canada, and Japan on December 14, 1951 stresses the principle that nations should abstain from exercising their right under international law to participate in high seas fishing in cases where (1) scientific evidence shows specific stock of fish is already being fully exploited and that additional fishing will not increase total yield and (2) where protected by conservation regulations which are being enforced. Such abstention from the exercise of thigh sea fishing rights is by agreement of all governments concerned, and voluntarily undertaken. The line of demarcation described in the Annex of this Convention was drawn only. for purposes of administration and for the enforcement of conservation measures The line is based on scientific research and was inserted partially on Japan's insistence to clarity areas in which Japanese salmon boats can fish without friction with United States fishermen and officials.

EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
 


Pusan

June 11, 1952

Excellency:
Under instructions of my Government, I have the honour to convey to Your Excellency the following:
Reference is made to the Presidential Proclamation of the Republic of Korea of January 18, 1952, by which it is declared that the Government of the Republic of Korea holds and exercises national sovereignty over the shelf and the seas adjacent to the coasts of the peninsula and island of the national territory of the Republic of Korea and by which is defined the zone to be placed under the sovereignty and protection of the Republic of Korea. It is noted that the said declaration of sovereignty over the adjacent seas does not interfere with the rights of free navigation on the high Seas.
The Government of the Republic of China views with sympathy the considerations which led the Government of the Republic of Korea to issue the said Proclamation. However, it feels concerned that the rights and interests of the Republic of China and its nationals may be adversely affected by the result of such claim of sovereignty over the area of the high seas so close to the Chinese territorial waters. While willing to cooperate with the Government of the Republic of Korea in the handling of matters of common interest, the Government of the Republic of China finds itself compelled to indicate to the Government of the Republic of Korea that it reserves the rights and interests of the Republic of China and its nationals so far as concerns any effects of the Korean Presidential Proclamation of January 18, 1952, or of any measures designed to carry that Proclamation into execution."
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to Your Excellency the assurances of my highest consideration.
His Excellency
Dr. Y. T. Pyun,
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea, Pusan, Korea

Pusan, June 26, 1952

FM/POL No.179
Excellency:
I have the honour to refer to your Excellency's note of 11 June 1952 expressing certain reservations of the rights and interests of the Government of the Republic of China with reference to the Presidential Proclamation of the Republic of Korea issued on January 18, 1952, regarding its adjacent seas.
While deeply appreciating the sympathetic view of your Excellency's Government of the considerations which led this Government to issue the said proclamation and its friendly willingness to cooperate with this Government in the handling of matters of common interests, I have the pleasure to take this opportunity of giving a few words which will assuage such misconception and misgiving as might be entertained by your Excellency's Government in connection with the said Proclamation.
Your Excellency's attention is hereby called to the fact, that the marine zone declared around the Republic of Korea by the said Proclamation is as in the cases of other proclamations of the same nature, never meant to extend the Korean territorial waters which should remain, as a matter of course, of the internationally accepted width, irrespective of the Proclamation, but to establish a protective marine zone to be kept from being devested.
It is, therefore, the intention of this Government to render needless any anxiety on the part of the Government of the Republic of China about its interests or those of its nationals, far if any rule promulgated or any measure taken to implement the said proclamation should be activated against any one in such protective zone, it would be only against those who would act as reckless despoilers or as shields for such despoilers, whom the past experience has taught the Koreans to regard with deep suspicion as detrimental to the effective preservation of marine resources in their adjacent seas.
Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest consideration.
For the Minister of Foreign Affairs

/S/


Hongkee Karl

Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs

His Excellency
Wang Tung Yuan, Republic of China
Ambassador to the Republic of Korea

British Legation in Korea at Pusan.

12th January, 1953.

Your Excellency,
I have the honour to refer to the Proclamation issued by the President of the Republic of Korea on the 19th January, 1952, about Korean territorial waters.
I am directed by Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to inform you that the terms of this proclamation are at variance with the views of Her Majesty's Goverment in the United Kingdom on claims to territorial waters. It is the considered view of Her Majesty's Government that such claims should not be made arbitrarily, as appears to have been done in the present instance, but should be regulated by international law. There is no warrant, under international law, for any claim to sovereignty over the continental shelf beyond the 100 fathom line or for any claim to sovereignty over the waters above the continental shelf beyond a distance of 3 miles from the coast, unless special historic reasons can be adduced. No such reasons are present in this case. Moreover, Her Majesty's Government consider that when, as in this case, the interests of another power are involved, claims should be decided by mutual discussion and consent and not by unilateral proclamation.
Her Majesty's Government are not satisfied that the precedents subsequently cited by the Government of the Republic of Korea in fact offer any justification for the claims advanced. In this connexion it is also relevant to recall that Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom recognise the Republic of Korea "as an independent Sovereign State whose territory is that part of the Korean peninsula in which free elections were held under the observation of the United Nations Temporary Commission".
I am therefore to inform you that Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom cannot accent as valid the basis on which the claim to sovereignty over adjacent waters has been made by the President of the Republic of Korea.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to Your Excellency the assurance of my highest consideration.
Dr. CHO Chong-Whan,
Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Republic of Korea, Pusan.

Pusan, January 28, 1953

My dear Mr. Minister:
I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your communication of January 12, 1953. I deeply regret that the false report regarding the conservation Iine, which we sometimes call the peace line, has caused Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom concern and misunderstanding. It is perfectly natural Your government regards it necessary to make the inquiry regarding the matter.
However, the President of the Republic of Korea had never issued or intended to issue such a proclamation on any part of the high sea beyond territorial waters belonging to the Republic of Korea. It is true that some press misinterpreted the presidential proclamation, but it was at once publicly corrected in the local newspapers. If you think it necessary to have the corrected paper I will send you a copy of it. It was further stated that this conservation line has nothing whatever to do with the high sea privileges open to every nation; it concerns only the relationship between Korea and Japan regarding the fishery and other marine products. It is the desire of this Government to have all friendly nations know that the Japanese fishermen, believing they still have the right to exploit the economic resources of Korea as they did for the last forty vears, will not stop at the territorial line, nor have they respected either the MacArthur Line or the conservation line proclaimed by this Government. In order to provide sore means by which peaceful relationship between the two countries in future can be assured, such a demarcation line should be drawn so that each nation can develop marine products on its side of the line following the example of precedent set by many Pacific nations with whom Japan signed an agreement recognizing such a line between them. I am enclosing a cony of the records of Japanese fishermen who have violated such lines drawn between Korea and Japan - first by General MacArthur, then by General Clark and also the Korean Government.
We consider this highly important because of the fact that the Japanese fishermen continue their havit of aggression, militarily, politically and economically. The Korean people who are striving to protect the means of their livelihood will not tolerate and the result may be a clash between the two nations any time which will create a very serious situation. It is our earnest request that if Her Majesty's Government are interested in maintaining peaceful relations among all Pacific nations, they should exert their good offices in advising the Japanese to realize the necessity of some such line in order to establish and maintain Peaceful relationship between Korea and Japan.
I hone this explanation will suffice to clarify the situation. If further information is necessary, kindly let us know.

Yours sincerely,


Chung W. Cho

Acting Foreign Minister

Enclosure:
1. Lists of the Japanese fishing crafts that viblated the conservation line.
2. A copy of the Presidential Proclamation
The Honourable Minister W, G, C, Graham Her Britannic Majesty's Legation Pusan

 
이름
T. T. Yynn , E. J. Gosford , Dr. Y. T. Pyun , Hongkee Karl , Chung W. Cho
지명
Washington , Korea , Japan , Korea , the Republic of Korea , the Soviet Union , Japan , Korea , the United States , the Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Korea , Japan , Korea , Japan , Korea , the Republic of Korea , Korea , the Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Korea , U-Am-Ryung , Kyung-Pung-Kun , Ham-Kyong-Pukdo , Ma-An-Do , Sin-Do-Yuido , Yong-Chun-Kun , Pyung-An-Pukdo , Ma-An-Do , Republic of Korea , Republic of Korea , San Francisce , Japan , Korea , the Republic of Korea , the Japan Sea , Takeshime , Liancourt Rocks , Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Korea , United States of America , Mexico , Argentine , Chile , Peru , Costa Rica , Saudi Arabia , Korea , Japan , Korea , Japan , Korea , Korea , Japan , Korea , Japan , Liancourt Rocks , Dokdo , Korea , Japan , the Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Republic of Korea , Republic of Korea , Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , the United States of America , United States , the United States , Japan , Korea , the Republic of Korea , United States , The United States , The United States , Latin American , The United States , Salvador , The United States , Salvador , Salvador , Salvador , United States , Salvador , United States , United States , Canada , Japan , United States , Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Republic of China , Republic of China , Republic of Korea , Republic of Korea , the United Kingdom , the United Kingdom , the Republic of Korea , United Kingdom , the Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Korea , Japan
관서
Canadian Institute of International Affairs , The Korean government , Government of the Republic of Korea , The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs , Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan , The Korean Government , Korean Diplomatic Mission in Tokyo , Japanese Government , Government of the Republic of Korea , the Japanese Government , Government of the United States of America , Government of the Republic of China , the British Legations , the British Legation , Japanese Government , American Embassy , Chinese Embassy , British Legation , The Government of the Republic of Korea , The Government of the Republic of Korea , The Government of the Republic of Korea , The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs , Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan , the Government of the Republic of Korea , The Japanese Government , the Japanese Government , the Japanese Government , Government of the Republic of Korea , Korean Government , The Korean Government , the Korean Government , The Japanese Government , The Korman Diplomatic Mission in Japan , Japanese Government's , the Korean Government , Japanese Government , Korean Government , Japanese Government , the Japanese Government , Korean Diplomatic Mission in Japan , Government of the Republic of Korea , Japanese Government , the Government of the Republic of Korea , The Government of the Republic of Korea , the Japanese Government , Korean Government , the Korean Government , the Korean Government , the Japanese Government , The Government of the Republic of Korea , Japanese Government , Government of the United States of America , the Government of the United States of America , United States Government , Government of the United States of America , Government of the Republic of Korea , The United Government , Salvador Government , Government of the Republic of Korea , The Government of the Republic of China , the Government of the Republic of Korea , Government of the Republic of Korea , Government of the Republic of China , Government of the Republic of Korea , Government of the Republic of China , the Government of the Republic of China , State for Foreign Affairs , Government of the Republic of Korea , Government of the United Kingdom
단체
the United Nations Commission , the United Nations Temporary Commission
문서
note Verbale , Japanese Ministry's Note Verbale , American Embassy's Note , Korean Ministry's Note , Chinese Embassy's Note , Ministry's Note , Ministry's Note , the Japanese Note Verbale , the Memorandum for the Korean Diplomatic Mission in Tokyo , the American Embassy's Note , Memorandum , the Ministry's Note , the Chinese Embassy's Note , the Ministry's Note , the British Legation's Note , the Ministry's Note , SCAPIN No.677
기타
Syngman Rhee Line , the Japanese peace treaty , Proclamation of the President of the Republic of Korea , the United States Proclamations , the Peace Treaty , SCAP , MacArthur Line , United States Proclamations , Republic of Korea Proclamation , The United States Presidential Proclamation , Salvador Constitution , Salvador Constitution , Salvador Constitution , Presidential Proclamation of the Republic of Korea , Korean Presidential Proclamation , Presidential Proclamation of the Republic of Korea

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