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정치보고서 No .19

 
  • 발신자김용식 공사
  • 수신자대통령실
  • 날짜1956년 5월 17일
  • 문서종류보고서
  • 형태사항영어 
Tokyo, May 17, 1956

TO : Office of the President
FROM : Minister Yong Shik Kim
SUBJECT : Political Report No.19
The items in this week's political report are as follows:
I. NORTH KOREAN PROPOSAL FOR FISHERY TALKS
II. RUSSO-JAPANESE "FISHERY DIPLOMACY"
III. TWO CONTROVERSIAL BILLS BEFORE THE DIET
I. NORTH KOREAN PROPOSAL FOR FISHERY TALKS
The north Korean Communists, in the name of "Korean International Trade Promotion Committee", sent a letter on May 12, 1956 to the Japan-North Korea Society, desiring to open a negotiation to conclude a fishery agreement with the Japanese Government. The note was in reply to an inquiry made early February this year by Japanese fishing groups in western Japan regarding whether Japanese fishing vessels would be allowed to enter north Korean fishing ports.
There is no likelihood that the Japanese Government will react to the north Korean bid. However, it is noted that the puppet regime's bid was apparently timed to the recent Soviet maneuvering to restore diplomatic relations with Japan through "fishery diplomacy". (Please refer to next item.)
It was on February 5, 1956 that the north Korean puppet regime first took the side of Japan in attacking the Republic of Korea's Peace Line, contending through its Pyongyang radio that "the Rhee Line is an illegal thing set up arbitrarily on the open seas". And on February 25, 1955, north Korea's Nam IL announced the puppet regime's readiness to normalize relations with Japan, though the overture was rejected by the Hatoyama Cabinet at that time.
II. RUSSO-JAPANESE "FISHERY DIPLOMACY"
The 17-day long fishery talks between Japan and the Soviet Union Came to a conclusion on May 15, 1956, when "Japan-Soviet Fishery Treaty" and "Japan-Soviet Agreement for Cooperation for the Rescue of Personnel in Sea Disasters" were signed, and simultaneously with the signing of the two pects, the chief negotiators of both countries exchanged three official notes, one of which regulates a provisional measure to be applied to the salmon fishing for this year.
The fishery treaty consisting of 8 articles will be valid for ten years and applied to all northwestern Pacific waters including the Japan Sea the Japan Sea, Okhotsk Sea and the Bering Sea (Article 1). It also provides for the mutual cooperation 'in conservation and development of fishing resources in the above-mentioned waters (Article 2), an establishment and functions of 'the North-Western Pacific Japan-Soviet Joint Fisheries Committee (Article 3 and 4), exchange of persons with knowledge and experiences in fishing (Article 5), issuance of license (Article 6), inspection of fishing activities (Article 7) and the matter as to the treaty's coming into force (Article 8).
The sea-rescue agreement composed of seven articles governs Japanese and Soviet cooperation for speedy and effective rescue of seamen, regardless of nationality, who are caught in sea distress in the same waters as defined in the above-mentioned fishing treaty.
The Russo-Japanese "fishery diplomacy" thus conducted was more than fishery diplomacy, because the representatives of the two Governments, in their joint communique issued shortly after the signing of the pacts, agreed on the necessity of reopening formal negotiations for the restoration of normal diplomatic relations between the two countries at the earliest possible date -- at least before July 31, this year. The Soviet intention in the fishery talks was unveiled in the articles of the two pacts and the above-mentioned joint communique which declare to the effect that the two pacts will not take effect until either a peace treaty between the two nations is effectuated or normal diplomatic relations are resumed.
At the price of her promise to normalize relations with Russia, Japan could be assured of safety of fishing in the northern waters where a restriction measure was declared by the Soviet Council of Ministers on March 21, 1956 (Please refer to Political Report No.11), on the condition that Japanese fishermen will be allowed to catch ▣5,000 tons of salmon during this year's fishing season.
The signing of the Japan-Soviet Fishery Agreements seems to have significance twofold: fishing problem and political problem. In the first place, since, through the treaty, the Russian Government will virtually hold the final licensing right, it is presumed that heavy pressure will be placed on Japanese fishing circles. Furthermore, Japan was virtually forced to retreat further from her adherence to the principle of "freedom of the high seas".
Secondly, the conclusion of the Moscow Agreements will result in pressing Japan for an early restoration of Russo-Japanese diplomatic relations. But, if Japan's fishing industry is to be regulated in accordance with the Moscow terms, Japan will be obliged to restore diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. For the means of normalization of relations with that country, Japan has nothing but two alternatives: so-called "Peace Treaty Formula" or "Adenauer Formula" (Please refer to Political Report No.18). An acceptance of the former formula will probably mean the withdrawal of the Japanese territorial demand for the two islands of Etorofu and Kunashiri, which was a main cause for the virtual rupture of the London talks on March 2, 1956. An adoption of the latter formula will probably mean an indefinite postpone of the question of settling the territorial issue including Habomai and Shikotan, which the Russians promised to "concede".
Influential officials of the Japanese Government including Prime Minister Hatoyama seem to be turning in favor of an early termination of technical state of war with the Soviet Union through the establishment of diplomatic relations which was broken off eleven years ago. But the Liberal-Democratic Party today is still divided into the groups over this issue. According to the Hatoyama camp, the restoration of relations with the Soviet Union would help expedite repatriation of Japanese nationals still under detention in Russia. They believe Japan cannot continue forever to shape her foreign policy without having any contact with Russia and with only a second-hand knowledge of that country. According to the other group, "Japan cannot sell the South Kuriles for the sake of fishing in northern waters". (Mr. Katsuo Okazaki, former Foreign Minister and now Vice-chairman of the Liberal-Democratic Party's Foreign Policy Committee so told the press on May 16, 1956).
In their view, there is no need for hasty resumption of relations under unfavorable conditions.
Meanwhile, Gergei O. Tichvinsky, former counselor of the Soviet embassy in London, arrived in Tokyo on March 13 to replace A.I. Domnitsky as chief of the unrecognized Soviet Mission in Japan. His entry into Japan has been permitted by the Japanese Government not as en official representative of the Soviet Government but for a provisional expediency. However, according to the Japanese informed sources, the Japanese Government will have to be forced gradually to recognize him as an official Soviet representative under the prevailing circumstances surrounding the relations between the two countries.
III. TWO CONTROVERSIAL BILLS BEFORE THE DIET
1. Bill for Establishment of Constitutional Research Council
The bill for Establishment of Constitutional Research Council, one of the Government-sponsored important bills (Please refer to Political Report No.8), was finally passed by the Diet on May 17, 1956. The Council is expected to be established after the Upper House election in July. The passage of this bill is considered to be the Hatoyama Cabinet's first step towards its ultimate goal of revising the present Constitution.
The Bill stipulates that the Council, which is to be composed of 30 Dietmen and 20 men of learning, will study and deliberate the present Constitution and report its findings to the Government and Diet.
The Socialists fought against the bill under the claim that it was designed to eventually bring about rearmament, restoration of Hirohito's status and family system.
2. Bill for Smaller Constituency
Another controversial bill for introducing a minor constituency system, to which the Liberal-Democratic Party attached utmost importance in the current session of the Diet, was passed by the Lower House yesterday (May 16, 1956) and was forwarded to the Upper House immediately. After 59 days of hot debate or filibusters on the part of the opposition Party, the Government barely succeeded in saving its face, for the question of mapping small electoral districts still remains untouched upon. The mapping of the electoral districts was left to the discretion of the Lower House Representative Electoral Map Committee to be established anew. Such being the case, even if the bill is also approved at the Upper House during the current session, the actual effectuation thereof will depend on whether or not the new electoral map bill is passed at the next session of the Diet. But it is still doubtful whether even the bill itself will be passed by the Upper House during the current session even if the session of the Diet was extended until June 3.
Copy to: Foreign Minister

 
이름
Nam IL , Hatoyama , Katsuo Okazaki , Gergei O. Tichvinsky , A.I. Domnitsky , Hirohito
지명
western Japan , Japan , Japan , Japan , Japan , Soviet Union , Japan Sea , Okhotsk Sea , the Bering Sea , Russia , Japan , Japan , Japan , Japan , the Soviet Union , Japan , Etorofu , Kunashiri , Habomai , Shikotan , the Soviet Union , the Soviet Union , Russia , Japan , Russia , Japan , the South Kuriles , London , Tokyo , Japan , Japan
관서
the Japanese Government , Japanese Government , the Hatoyama Cabinet , the Soviet Council of Ministers , the Russian Government , the Japanese Government , the Hatoyama camp , Japanese Government , the Soviet Government , the Japanese Government , the Diet , the Hatoyama Cabinet , the Diet , the Lower House , the Upper House , the Upper House , the Diet , the Upper House , the Diet
단체
The north Korean , the Japan-North Korea Society , the North-Western Pacific Japan-Soviet Joint Fisheries Committee , Liberal-Democratic Party , Constitutional Research Council , Liberal-Democratic Party , the Lower House Representative Electoral Map Committee
기타
Republic of Korea's Peace Line , the Japan-Soviet Fishery Agreements , the Moscow Agreements

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