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조영조약 체결 시기에 관한 Memorandum

제1차 조약 체결 과정

 
  • 발신자H.S. Parkes
  • 발송일1881년 1월 11일(음)
  • 출전FO 881/4595; AADM pp. 79-80.
Memorandum by Sir H.S. Parkes.

[Mr. Kennedy’s despatches Nos. 179 and 180, Very Confidential]

IT is very satisfactory to learn from these despatches that the King and Government of Corea are now alive to the importance of abandoning the policy of strict seclusion hitherto maintained by that nation towards all European States, and that they now desire to conclude Treaties with those States, of the same character as the Corean Treaty with Japan. As that Treaty is formed on the lines of the British Treaty with Japan, a similar one would satisfy our requirements.
The presence of the large Russian force in the immediate vicinity of Corea has doubtless convinced the more intelligent members of the Corean Government of the wisdom of the advice given to them both by China and Japan, as to the imminent danger they will incur if they delay any longer the opening of their country to European intercourse.
It is obviously desirable that we should avail ourselves of this favourable disposition without loss of time. We should, I think, find it much easier and more expeditious to act by ourselves that in combination with other Powers. The papers inclosed in Mr. Kennedy’s despatch No. 131 of the 27th July, 1880, show that the Coreans are better disposed towards Great Britain than the other European Powers with whom they are acquainted (see Mr. Satow’s memorandum), and combination with the latter might, in some respects, prejudice or impede our action. But if our co-operation should be invited by other Powers, it would, of course, be undesirable to withhold it.
It is probable that some of the Powers will not be backward in moving in the matter. Although the endeavours made by the United states and Italy last year to open communications with Corea were not attended with success, those Powers will probably be ready to repeat the effort when they become acquainted with the changed attitude of the Corean Government. It would appear from these despatches that the change of feeling in Corea has been made known to the American and German Ministers in Japan, who would doubtless communicate it to their Governments. If the latter, or any other Power, should desire the co-operation of Great Britain, they would probably communicate their wishes to Her Majesty’s Government.
The desirability of acting promptly is suggested by two considerations: (1) that Russia may employ the force she has now on the spot either to occupy territory in Corea, or to coerce Corea into granting her exclusive advantages (see Lord Dufferin’s despatch No. 341 of the 13th August, 1880); and (2) that if any settlement arrived at between Russia and China should relieve the Corean Government of the apprehensions they now entertain as to the hostile designs of the Russian force, they may change their views and return to their old policy of seclusion.
The most convenient season of the year for sending a Mission to Corea would be April or May. I am aware that it is the intention of Admiral Willes, who is about to relieve Admiral Coote, in the command of the China and Japan station, to proceed to Shanghae about the end of April, and his presence there at that date would be opportune, either to support the Minister charged with a Mission, or to carry out, as suggested by Sir Julian Pauncefote, any instructions that might be deemed necessary. I need not add that it would afford me pleasure to be charged with a Mission to Corea if Her Majesty’s Government should see fit to entrust it to me.
If such a course should be decided on, I think it would be desirable that a preliminary visit should be paid to the Corean capital by an Agent of lower rank than a Minister, and I venture to suggest that Mr. Satow is well fitted, from his knowledge of the subject, to undertake such a duty. If he preceded the Mission by a few weeks he would be able to feel the ground, to ascertain whether a mission would be well received, and in that case, to make preparations for the reception of the Minister. If circumstance should permit, he might commence the discussion of the details of the proposed Treaty with the Corean authorities. And he might meet me at Shanghae to report results or might communicate with me by letter, if he found it more expedient to await my arrival in Corea.
It might, I think, be found possible and advisable to convey earlier notice to Corea of the intended dispatch of the Mission through the medium of the Chinese Government at Peking. It may be presumed that the Chinese Government would approve of the Mission, and would give it their support. If the Corean Government were timely apprized that they might soon expect a British Mission they would be the less inclined to agree to exclusive arrangements’ with Russia (if such should be proposed) or to disavow the overtures made by the King’s Agent in Japan.

(Signed) HARRY S. PARKES
January 11, 1881

 
이름
H.S. Parkes , Kennedy , Dufferin , Coote , Julian Pauncefote , Satow , HARRY S. PARKES
지명
Shanghae , Shanghae
사건
Corean Treaty with Japan , British Treaty with Japan

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