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대(對)조선 조약 체결 방식에 관한 미 국무성의 입장

 
  • 발신자H. Fish
  • 수신자G. M. Robeson
  • 발송일1870년 4월 4일(음)
  • 출전FRUS, 1870, China, pp. 331-3; ADPP, Vol. 9, pp. 95-6.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, April 4, 1870

Sir:
 Count von Bismarck, chancellor of the North German Union, has, through Baron von Gerolt, requested this Government to participate in a combined action of the powers engaged in the China trade against the pirates in the Chinese waters, to be settled either by previous arrangements between the governments, or between the commanders of the several squadrons.
 Baron von Gerolt has further informed this Department that her Britannic Majesty’s representative at Washington has been notified by his government that the British admiralty will give, or has given, orders to the British naval commander in China to cooperate with the commanders of the naval forces of North Germany, and of other maritime powers in China, in combined measures for this object.
 Baron von Gerolt has been informed by this Department that the President will take great pleasure in complying with the request of. Count Bismarck, by directing instructions to be issued from the Navy Department to Admiral Rogers to cooperate for such purpose with the naval forces of North Germany, and with the representatives of such other powers as shall receive similar instructions. He has also been informed that the cooperation of Admiral Rogers, and of the forces under his command, will be limited to cases of recognized piracy; that the admiral will be instructed to proceed in such a way as not to wound the sensibilities of the Chinese governments, or to interfere with the lawful commerce of Chinese subjects, or to conflict with the peaceful policy toward China in which the governments of North Germany and the United States so happily agree.
 In asking you to so instruct Admiral Rogers, I beg to add a few suggestions.
 The present relations between the United States and China are unusually amicable. The policy inaugurated by Mr. Burlingame and Mr. Seward at Washington, whereby the Chinese Empire was placed on the footing of the civilized states of the west, and recognized as an organized central power, was essentially an American policy in its inception, and is so regarded in the Chinese mind. From the best information which this Department can obtain, this policy is one calculated to increase American influence and interests in China. It meets with the opposition of the British merchants and traders in China, who look upon it as a restraint upon their commerce and legitimate influence. The late revision of the British treaty, which has been made in the spirit of the new policy, is also opposed by the British resident merchants, with almost unanimity. Strong memorials have been sent from Hong Kong and Shanghai to Lord Clarenon to prevent its ratification.
 On the other hand, this Department is informed by Mr. Seward, the consul general at Shanghai, that the ratification of that revision will benefit American interests in China. It is therefore desirable to do nothing which can imperil either the continuance of what is known as the Burlingame policy or the substantial ratification of the British revision.
 It is not impossible that the British merchants in China, who, with the other foreign merchants on that coast, constitute the only society to which British officers in port have access, may, unconsciously to themselves, impress upon the British naval officers their views of the Chinese character and government, and of the policy to be pursued toward the latter. I can conceive that the judgement of a British officer under such circumstances may be warped, and that the may be induced to commit acts which are not in harmony with the policy which the United States desire to observe.
 Admiral Rogers, when asked to cooperate with the British forces in the suppression of piracy, should, therefore, be satisfied that the supposed pirates are not innocent native traders or sailors’ that they are not part of a native government force; that they are, in fact, what they are said to be-recognized pirates. He should especially be careful to do nothing to weaken the influence which the United States has justly acquired through its peaceful policy. He should not allow himself to be drawn into precipitating an armed collision between China and any of the western powers. And whenever he has reason to suppose that his desired cooperative action may affect our political relations with China, he should seek the advice of the diplomatic representative of the United states at Pekin, who will be at all times possessed with the views of this Department.
 Thus forewarned and prevented from becoming the unconscious instrument for carrying out purposes in conflict with the views of this Government, it is to be hoped that it may be the good fortune of Admiral Rogers, and of those under his command, to eradicate from the Chinese waters the pirates who have been so long a scourge upon the commerce of the world. I may add that the North German government is in full accord with this Government in its oriental policy, and has at all times expressed to Mr. Bancroft its wish to harmonize the instructions to its diplomatic and naval representatives with those emanating from the United States authorities.
 As to Admiral Rogers’s suggestion that some instructions be given for opening negotiations with Corea, for a treaty to regulate the treatment of shipwrecked seamen, I have to say that that subject has occupied the attention of this Department for some months. In April, 1868, it was first brought to the favorable notice of my predecessor, Mr. Seward, by Mr. George F. Seward, the consul general at Shanghai, and has been from time to time since then the subject of correspondence. It would appear from the dispatches of the consul general that about that time the Shenandoah made an expedition to the Corea. It is possible that the dispatches of the commander of that vessel in the archives of the Navy Department may throw some light upon the subject.
 This Department is prepared to instruct the minister of the United States at Pekin to open negotiations with the government of Corea for the conclusion of such a treaty. It is thought best to intrust this duty to the diplomatic representative of the United States instead of the admiral of the fleet, because the political relations between China and Corea are such as to make it desirable to first obtain the good will and possibly the good offices of the Chinese government. Full instructions will be forwarded to Mr. Low by an early post. Mr. Seward may also be directed to accompany the expedition should he return his post in time to do so.
 This Department asks that instructions may be given to Admiral Rogers to place himself in communication with Mr. Low, soon after his arrival in Chinese waters, and to agree with him upon a time when he shall transport that gentleman to Corea. It is hoped that the expedition will be sufficiently formidable to make an impression upon the native authorities, and that Admiral Rogers will accompany it in person. Mr. Low will be instructed to counsel and advise with him with the utmost frankness and confidence in every stage of the negotiation.
 Should, unhappily, any cause for hostilities occur during this mission, it is hoped that the Navy Department will instruct Admiral Rogers in such case to advise with Mr. Low, and to leave with this Department the responsibility of war or peace.

HAMMILTON FISH

Hon. GEO. M. ROBESON,
Secretary of the Navy

 
이름
von Bismarck , Baron von Gerolt , Baron von Gerolt , Rogers , Rogers , Burlingame , Seward , Clarenon , Rogers , Seward , George F. Seward , Low , Seward , Rogers , Low , Rogers , Low , Rogers , Low
지명
the North German Union , China , North Germany , China , Bismarck , China , the United States , the United States , China , Washington , China , China , Hong Kong , Shanghai , China , United States , the United States , China , China , Pekin , Corea , the Corea , Pekin , China , Corea
관서
the Navy Department , Navy Department

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