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청과 조선에 관한 지리 정보 및 정세 분석

 
  • 발신자J. R. Browne
  • 수신자H. Fish
  • 발송일1869년 6월 20일(음)
  • 출전ADPP, Vol. 9, pp. 87-94.
Legation of the United States,
Peking, June 20, 1869

Sir:
 Feeling assured that the best service I could render in China to my government and fellow countrymen would be to obtain accurate and trustworthy information in regard to the material resources of the country, the necessities and prospects of trade and the actual condition of the people, I have given all the attention possible to the collection of reliable data on these subjects and have invariably encouraged exploration throughout the interior. By dispatch No. 3 to Mr. Secretary Seward you will see that I was instrumental in organising a thorough geological reconnaissance of China, under the repossession of Baron F. von Richthofen, the assistant geologist, who has now been traveling for eight months through the principal provinces. He has already made valuable and highly interesting discoveries in the provinces bordering on the Yang-tze-kiang and the Grand Canal, and in [Shangtung], and [Chi___]. No such thorough and extensive scientific exploration has ever before been made in China. Although this is a private enterprise gotten up at my suggestion by citizens of San Francisco, I feel no hesitation in saying that the government and people of the United States will derive great benefit from the information obtained ― provided we can ever succeed in overcoming the prejudices of the Imperial rulers against the opening up of the country. Under any circumstances, it will be an advantage to the scientific world to have its stock of knowledge increased by the contributions of so eminent a savant and explorer as Baron von Richthofen.
 Meantime, I have urged upon our Consuls at the various ports the great benefits to be derived from explorations in the neighborhood of their Consulates and the collection of reliable data respecting the resources of the country.
 General LeGendre, our Consul at Formosa, has already made great progress in this direction. His explorations in Formosa and contributions to our knowledge of that Island are among the most interesting and valuable ever made on this Coast. During my visit to Amoy in April last, I gave him all possible encouragement, and impressed upon him the importance of using his best efforts in his intercourse with the local authorities to [reduce] their prejudices against the introduction of improved systems of industry and communication. I also expressed to him the hope that he would be enabled to make some explorations in the province of [Fukkien], and obtain valuable data in regard to its resources and the character and condition of the people. His report on Formosa with accompanying map (see dispatch 32) and his trade report of July 1868, transmitted to the Consular Bureau of the Department, sufficiently indicate the enthusiasm and ability with which he has entered into the cause of material improvement in China. The last mail has brought a series of able reports from him on the [c____] trade and his efforts for its suppression. These will be copied and transmitted to the department as soon as the necessary attention can be given to the subject.
 On my arrival at Shanghai last year, I had several conversations with Mr. Seward U.S. Consul General in regard to an expedition to the Corea. From a previous interview with Captain Febiger of the U.S. Navy, at yokohama, I had formed the idea that it was possible to make a treaty with the Corean authorities; and I was exceedingly anxious to undertake it myself and if possible obtain some useful information about that little-known Kingdom. Finding however that Mr. Seward had already taken a great interest in this matter, and had received instructions from the Secretary of State authorizing him to visit the Corea and make a treaty, I did not desire to interfere with his arrangements ― especially as I had no instructions on the subject ― and therefore contented myself by offering him my cordial co-operation. Subsequent correspondence took place, and it was concluded by the Department that the time was not opportune for such an undertaking. On this subject, I beg to say that I consider the time as opportune as it ever will be, in the chance of any effort to make friendly acquaintance with the people and open relations with the authorities. There will be no commerce with the Coreans of any value, and no special necessity for intercourse, until a beginning is made; and it is quite evident that such a beginning must come from the outside. I would be glad to see out government take the initiative. It will be done before very long by other governments, if not by ours. Already England, France and Russia are looking that way ― especially the latter. I have no hesitation therefore in recommending that ample instructions be given to the U.S. Minister at Peking authorizing him to make a treaty with the Coreans, and that orders be given to the Admiral Commanding the U.S. Squadron in the Chinese seas to furnish him with transportation and protection. At least five or six vessels of war should accompany the Minister, and if possible the Admiral should go himself.
 In addition to the reports of exploration and discovery already transmitted to the department in various of my despatches, I have now the pleasure of sending you a very interesting narrative of a trip to [Kia-ying-chow] on the River Han by Mr. Wingate, U.S. Consul at [Luatow]. On the occasion of my visit to [Luatow] in April last Mr. Wingate gave me a verbal account of his adventures and observations up the river, and I requested him to furnish me with an official report on the subject for transmission to the department, with a map of the river designating as nearly as practicable its course and depth and the locations of the principal towns on its banks. Both map and report are herewith enclosed (A) Mr. Wingate’s, deservation or ([_____ting]) on the country, its geographical features, products and trade, and his personal experience of the character and disposition of the people will be found both interesting and useful. It is difficult to even estimate the importance of such well-directed labors as these to which your attention is now invited. What we want especially at this time is to make friendly acquaintance with the people and provincial authorities of China. Our Consuls can do a vast amount of good by free and amicable intercourse with them, and by using their personal as well as official influence to induce them to advance. It would aid the central government in its efforts to enter upon a career of improvement ― should it be disposed that way ― to be supported by the Provincial leaders and people; and even if it be true ― as I believe to be the case ― that the Imperial authorities have no such disposition, there can be no better way of moving them forward than by bringing pressure to bear upon them from their own embodiments and subjects. For eight years past, we have worked with but little avail from the inside (Peking); we should now, in addition to continued effort here bring our moral forces to bear from the outside (the Provinces). Our Consuls should be furnished with textbooks in Chinese, on the advantages of railroads, [telegraphs, steam-[navigation]] the working of coal mines, &c, and these should be distributed freely among the local mandarins and the people. If we expect anything to be done in China by moral means, we must proceed to do it; and not idly await changes where no causes are at work to produce[or reduce] them. [looks like Futersons] flattery applied to an ignorant people like the Chinese is both cruel and absurd, for it leads them into an erroneous conception of their own intelligence as contrasted with that of foreigners, causes them to resist innovation more strenuously than ever, and ends by subjecting them to compulsion and additional sacrifices.
 I also enclose (B) from the Shanghai News Letter some interesting “Notes of a trip overland from Canton to [Kieekiang] made this spring by Mr. Barber, a young American, with a single companion. The country is admirably adapted to railway convenience, and Mr. Barber’s observations will be found valuable.
 Herewith also (C) from the N. China Daily News is a very entertaining account of a visit to Peking and a trip to the Mongolian desert (in which last I may say, the writer and his family were accompanied by one of my own children) performed this spring by Mr. Edward Cunningham, the intelligent manager of the American house of Russell *amp; Company.

I have the honor to be
Sir, Your Obed’ Serv’t
J. Ross Browne

Hon. Hamilton Fish,
Secretary of State

 
이름
Seward , F. von Richthofen , Baron von Richthofen , LeGendre , Seward , Febiger , Seward , Wingate , Wingate , Barber , Edward Cunningham
지명
China , Yang-tze-kiang , the Grand Canal , Shangtung , Formosa , Fukkien , Shanghai , yokohama , Peking , Canton , Kieekiang , Peking

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