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조선 측과의 교섭 경과 정리

  • 발신자E. B. Drew
  • 수신자李基祖
  • 발송일1871년 7월 2일(음)
  • 출전FRUS, 1871, China, p. 148-9.
 I had the honor to receive your note of 20th June, in which you reiterate your refusal to forward a dispatch from his excellency the minister to the court. You also decline to inform His Majesty that his excellency desires to communicate with the government. In reply, I would observe that it is quite beyond my province to enter into a discussion respecting the proprieties of diplomatic correspondence and intercourse; nor does our former correspondence justly the belief that such delicate and responsible powers are confided to you by your government.
 With reference to the policy and practices of your government, about which you make positive statements and give voluntary assurances, I have to say that, until better satisfied of your authority, these statements and assurances cannot be accepted by his excellency as a reply to inquiries he might have made had an opportunity been afforded for him to explain the business in detail; and until this can be done in a convenient and proper manner it is quite necessary for officials, of whatever rank, to assume to know that his business is, or to gratuitously assign reasons for the action of His Majesty in declining to open communication with a foreign envoy, sent by his government to transact business of the highest importance. His excellency instructs me to say that coming, as he did, in obedience to the express orders of his Government, in the interest of humanity, without menace or hostile intent, all of which was announced to His Majesty in advance, he had a right to expect a courteous and civil reception, and that he would be allowed to explain in person, either to His Majesty or to a high minister designated for the purpose, the wished of the Government of the United States preparatory to discussing, and agreeing, if possible, upon some definite mode of conducting affairs between the two countries in the future.
 To remove, as far as practicable, the doubts of the local officials and the people, which the presence of the vessels might have raised, and to give assurances of our friendly disposition, you were, by permission of the minister, informed that we desired peace, and that there was no intention, either on the part of his excellency or the admiral, of interfering with the people, disturbing the government or the local institutions, or seeking control over a single foot of your territory. Instead of being received in a manner befitting the dignity of the Government he represents, and afforded an opportunity to make known the business which he was instructed to bring to the notice of your government, the civilities and courtesies due to a minister of his rank have been withheld, and all his efforts to open communication with the government have been frustrated. Your refusal to send the dispatches is quite in keeping with what had preceded, and your reasons for declining to perform the service are, I feel bound to say, frivolous and evasive. While waiting at this anchorage to receive such communication as His Majesty might choose to send, and consult with such persons, of suitable rank, as might be designated to meet him, the admiral concluded to render his smaller vessels useful to commerce and humanity by employing them in exploring the difficult and dangerous channels which are so numerous on the coasts of your country. Information was given in advance, of his intention, with the request that the surveying party should not be interfered with. Notwithstanding this timely caution and these assurances of good faith, the vessels were, without notice, wantonly and treacherously assaulted from your forts and masked batteries, and the utmost efforts of the military authorities were used to destroy the vessels and the people on board. Fortunately, the skill and power of the military were not equal to the base and treacherous design of the officers that directed the attack. Instead of making an apology for this outrage, the government remained silent, and the local officials from whom we heard mildly deprecated the necessity but justified the act. After waiting a reasonable time for apology and reparation, the admiral proceeded to seek redress in the only manner possible, according to the rules and practices of civilized nations. That the punishment inflicted was severe you are well aware. At the same time the moderation of the admiral in confining his measures of redress to the forts and places from which the first attack upon his squadron came, must be as apparent to your government as it will be to the world when the circumstances are made known.
 I am directed to say, in conclusion of his excellency all reasonable efforts have been put forth to accomplish what his Government desired without the use of force, or even the display of it, further than it became necessary to redress unprovoked wrongs. These friendly overtures having failed to produce any favorable results, he feels that further correspondence or delay is alike unnecessary. From what he has seen, he is firmly convinced that the government of Corea has from the first determined to repel all advances toward friendly negotiation, and that the course of moderation and conciliation, which his excellency adopted and frankly made known, has had no other effect than to enlarge the pretensions and encourage the hostility of His Majesty and those acting under his authority. That the Government of the United States will be disappointed when it learns all the facts is quite clear. What course it will deem proper to pursue in view of all the circumstances it is not within my province to predict. It can scarcely be expected that the United States, or the governments of Europe, will continue to submit tamely to the haughty dictum of His Majesty, or rest content with his persistent refusal to hold direct communication with the ministers that may be sent on public business. Nor will it furnish just grounds for complaint on the part of His Majesty were foreign governments to use the power necessary to enforce compliance with their reasonable demands. In view of the gravity of the situations, his excellency deems it expedient to report fully the existing condition of affairs to his Government, and take its instructions before proceeding further. In the mean time he will feel at liberty to withdraw temporarily to some other point on the coast of Corea or China. Some of the vessels may be employed on the coast surveying during his absence, and it is to be hoped they will not be interfered with or molested.
 I would further observe that if any of my countrymen should be, unfortunately, wrecked upon the coasts or islands. it is expected that the assurances of His Majesty to the board of rites will be made good, and the people be humanely treated and forwarded to their country. Any expenses incurred on this account will be readily paid by the Government of the United States.

July 2, 1871

별지 : 漢譯文
  • 출전[漢譯] 『동문』 洋舶情形, pp. 2491-7; 『일록』, 『일기』, 『실록』 辛未 5월 17일에 관련 내용 수록
前接五月初三日照覆又稱貴府不允代遞公文復不肯詳奏貴朝廷俾知敝處有此欲達之言語竊念兩國相接往復文字體制辯論此等禮儀係敝總辦分外之事以前往復文字而觀貴府亦未必特受此鎭重之權至代國立言定規成憲云者此貴府出於臆斷自言未知果奉此重權否敝欽憲不以爲據也我欽憲之來有懷欲吐貴朝廷不開以陳訴之門無地可述不得以貴府越分之空談遽作如心之答覆在貴國旣未能善爲接納容遠人達所欲言卽不須貴官等設詞懸猜逆料其中藏之積愫貴朝廷不肯與他國重任公使以文字相通貴官等亦不必托詞代明其故我欽憲特奉本國勅命爲大公利益之擧不耀兵威不懷惡意且先有文字達明此情如是遠來在貴國亟應按禮款迎或與貴君主或對特派大員俾盡達其奉勅之由議訂將來兩國交涉事宜之規範我舟初至欲解地方之惑示我等和睦之情敝總辦承准憲委通知貴員使知敝上司中懷柔和不擾民居不移國俗不侵寸土等意貴國應看敝國之勢分使臣之重差優待涵容俾得展其奉辦之件而貴國於此等應行禮宜咸靳而不予翻於我欽憲力求達文之逕槪使之徒勞玆之不肯代遞公文較從前拒我情形如出一轍至文內申明不敢遞上之故皆支吾虛浮之詞敝舟停泊海口時因候貴朝廷信音或派大員前來伊時敝提憲擬令小舟往探水勢緣貴境水道涉險甚多係爲保護貿易愛人之擧先期告地方轉達沿海官民勿得阻碍雖然有此預囑並示好意不料行舟之際突由伏兵努力肆燃銃砲意在殞滅我舟師幸而兵力不敷未遂奸計似此殘毒之擧貴朝廷不肯任咎緘默自安貴守土亦各有言不過淡淡歎惜謂職所應爲而已我提憲守候數日足敷排解而貴處並無彌縫之意因照各禮義邦之常例自行伸理雖加刑似重而我提憲只施於攻我之處實非過情足見躬行節制豈獨貴國卽四海各國聞之必有公論也在我欽憲欲成本國之所願凡諸善策罔不盡力經營除伸理負屈外不加兵力不耀兵威以柔和之意而來至今一無所獲卽不必久駐躭延徒勞文字歷考以上情形豁然洞悉貴朝廷於此事之最初立意堅定拒斥和睦啇辦之擧我欽憲原以溫柔和誘之意而來先曾佈達現以和柔之度量適以日增貴君臣之傲慢乖離而已此番復命我朝廷聞之亦必大失所望至以後如何辦理之處我等實不能預料將來所慮者敝國曁西洋諸大國未必帖然于貴君王之定而不移以延擯斥他國重任使臣拒而不納從此遂寂然也設或將來各國用强以致貴君王不能拂其所請卽難言屈抑矣此節關係綦重我欽憲相應覆旨恭候本國廷議定奪暫時移駐他處或在貴國境內或於中國地方或仍令二三舟隻留碇貴境海口一帶隨時察探水勢卽望貴國不須過問可也且嗣後如有弊國人民在貴境遇難尤冀貴君王必按復答禮部咨內之應許不食前言體恤拯救護送其中應有費用本國如數補償云云 五月十五日

美國 , 中國
the Government of the United States , government of Corea , the Government of the United States , the Government of the United States , 禮部

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