- ▶ Koguryo had established, developed, and collapsed within the territory of ancient China and is therefore a part of Chinese history.
- ▶ Koguryo was an independent kingdom founded in the process of resisting Chinese influence.
▲ Gungnae Fortress wall remainsTraces of a fortress were excavated near the stone wall. Chinese scholars consider this site to be a Han Chinese fortress, and believe that Koguryo built Gungnae Fortress (Guonei City) on the grounds of Han counties and prefectures as evidence for historical claim. However, Gungnae Fortress was proven to have been built by the people of Koguryo upon additional excavations.
China claims Koguryo as one of its local governments, because Koguryo was founded within Xuantu Commandery, one of the administrative regions of the Four Commanderies of Han. Despite multiple transfers of the capital city, Koguryo failed to move beyond the scope of the Four Commanderies.
However, Koguryo was not founded within the Xuantu Commandery, but rather in the process of driving away the Xuantu Commandery. After its founding, Koguryo has never been affiliated with China's territories. Therefore, the claim that Koguryo belonged to China is a grave distortion of history.
Historical records proving Koguryo's independence from the Four Commanderies of Han
• Records of the Three Kingdoms - "A small castle was built on the eastern boundary of Xuantu Commandery. When court attire and official hats were left, [someone] would retrieve them at Sesi (A point in the solar term. May also indicate New Year's Day)” → Indicates that a boundary existed between Koguryo and the Xuantu Commandery. The phrase "When court attire and official hats were left, [someone] would retrieve them" signifies that Koguryo was not a political subordinate, but rather an independent kingdom outside of China's jurisdiction.
• History of the Three Kingdoms - "Records regarding war between Koguryo and China" → Indicates that Koguryo was not within the domain of the Four Commanderies of Han.