Discovery Learning 1
Japan’s Dokdo Argument 1: Japan has been aware of Dokdo’s existence since ancient times.
”Revised Map of Japan’s Land and Roads”
Japan presents Nagakubo Sekisui’s “Revised Map of Japan’s Land and Roads” and other old maps and historical documents as evidence. However, Nagakubo’s first edition map does not include Ulleungdo and Dokdo as Japanese territory (different colors) and marks them as outside the border. Thus, Ulleungdo and Dokdo are viewed as foreign territory.
Both private and government maps illustrate Ulleungdo and Dokdo as Joseon territory. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs published the “Chōsen-koku kōsai shimatsu naitansho” (Confidential Inquiry into the Particulars of Korea’s Relations with Japan) in 1870. This text stated that “Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and Matsushima [Dokdo] are Joseon territory.” This was an acknowledgement by Japan that the islands were Joseon territory.
“Map of Joseon and the Coast of the East Sea,” composed by the Japanese Department of the Navy in 1876, also illustrates Dokdo as Korean territory. The Daijōkan, the highest administrative office in the Meiji government, stated through the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1877, “Ulleungdo and Dokdo have no relation with Japan, and you must keep that in mind.”
Japan’s Dokdo Argument 2： There is no historical evidence of Korea’s awareness of Dokdo.
”Revised Map of Japan’s Land and Roads” is presented as evidence by Japan as proof of past awareness of Dokdo. However, Korean evidence suggests that Korea’s awareness predates Japan by at least 600 years.
According to History of the Three Kingdoms (1145), “In the sixth month of 512 Usan surrendered and paid annual tribute.” The Annals of King Sejong Geographical Records (1454) states, “Usan (Dokdo) and Mureung (Ulleungdo) islands are in the middle of the ocean directly east of Uljin. The two islands are close enough that the other is visible on a clear day.”
New and Expanded Complete Conspectus of the Territory of the Eastern Country (1531) also states, “Usan (Dokdo) and Mureung (Ulleungdo) islands are in the middle of the sea directly east of Uljin.” The Compilation of Reference Documents on the Eastern Country (1770) recorded, “Ulleung and Usan are part of Usan, and foreigners refer to Usan as Songdo.” Essentials of Governance (1808) and Comprehensive Study of Civilization, Revised and Expanded (1908) include similar references.
- Discovery Learning 1
1. Japan argues, “Korea claims Usando to be Dokdo, but Usando refers to either Ulleungdo or a non-existent island.” Find the evidence from the previous section that refutes this claim.
2. Although Ulleungdo and Dokdo were marked in old Korean maps, Dokdo’s location and size were incorrectly illustrated on several occasions. If so, does that mean that Koreans did not properly recognize Dokdo’s existence?