8 Chapter Reference
1 “Map of the Three Countries”
△ “Map of the Three Countries”
Compiled by a Japanese military scholar named Hayashi Shihei in 1785, this map is one of five maps included in “Map of the Three Countries” (三國通覽圖說). The “three countries” refers to Joseon, Ryukyu (Okinawa), and Ezochi (the northern Hokkaido area). This map is centered on Japan, and illustrates the three countries in different colors. Two islands sit in the middle of the sea between Joseon and Japan. These islands are colored the same as Joseon. The island on the left is labeled Takeshima with the words “Joseon land” underneath. The description reads, “Onshū [Oki] and Joseon are visible from this island.” At the time of its creation, Japanese referred to Ulleungdo and Dokdo as “Takeshima” and “Matsushima,” respectively. Therefore, Jukdo must be regarded as Ulleungdo and the unnamed island to the right must be Dokdo according to this map. The Japanese claim that this small island next to Ulleungdo is Takeshima is false as Takeshima cannot be marked on this map according to its scale. In addition, the Japanese regarded Dokdo as “Songdo within Jukdo” and “island near Dokdo” at the time. This incorrect information continued after the Meiji Restoration. Thus, the two islands on this map must be regarded as Ulleungdo and Dokdo. Also, another island is illustrated in front of Yeongil Bay, and it matches the “Ulleungdo – Qianshin” seen in the “Map of the Eight Provinces.” The “Map of the Three Countries” illustrates Ulleungdo and Jukdo as separate islands, thus Hayashi’s geographical awareness of the area is inaccurate. This incorrect information should be attributed to Japan’s prohibited access to the area in the late seventeenth century due to An Yong-bok’s activities. Despite all this, the islands northwest of Oki Islands are still labeled as Joseon territory. Hayashi was considered to be Japan’s principal geographer at the time, and his maps reflect Japan’s mapping capabilities and geographical awareness of neighboring countries. This map was compiled at a time when the Edo shogunate required an increased awareness of its neighboring countries. Japan’s principal geographer identified Dokdo as adjacent to Ulleungdo and understood them to be Joseon territory.
2 “Map of Joseon and the Coast of the East Sea,” by the Japanese Department of the Navy
First published in 1857, this map was compiled by the Russian Navy based on the 1854 exploration results of Russian warships in the East Sea. This map was translated by the Japanese Department of the Navy and published in 1876. Compiled by utilizing precision mapping techniques, this map presents a detailed illustration of the Korean peninsula, its coastline, and coastal inlets. Ulleungdo and Dokdo are adjacent to each other and labeled as Joseon territory. The three illustrations of Dokdo from different distances and directions were added in 1861. This map shows that a third party understood Dokdo to be Korean territory, and that Japan accepted this map to be true without any modifications.
3 “Complete Map of Korea” from True History of the Russo-Japanese War
Hakubunkan was one of the principal publishing companies in Tokyo. On June 20, 1905, the company published True History of the Russo-Japanese War
. The “Complete Map of Korea” (34.5×48 centimeters) is included in Article 76 as an appendix. The “Complete Map of Korea” identifies Dokdo as Korean territory despite being published after the decision to annex was made and officially announced.
This means that with the exception of government ministers and officials, not even the Japanese public knew that Japan had annexed Dokdo. This is clear evidence that not even the Japanese public was aware of the announcement of Shimane Prefecture Notice No. 40, and that this notice is invalid.
The “Complete Map of Korea” is included in the New Korean Geography (韓國新地理) published by Hakubunkan in September 1905. If Dokdo was actually considered to be Japanese territory within Japan’s maps of Korea, there would have been no need to include “Liancourt Rocks” in the “Complete Map of Korea.” Dokdo is located outside the border, indicating Korean sovereignty. On page 5 of Section 3 (Gangwon-do), Ulleungdo is described as follows:
Approximately 30 ri (120 kilometers) southeast from this island (Ulleungdo), midway point to our Oki Islands, there is an uninhabited island referred to as “Yanko.”
The fact that Dokdo is a part of Ulleungdo is made clear, and the word “our” was attached to Oki, unlike Dokdo.
4 “Map of Joseon”
In 1592, the Japanese Navy official Kuki Yoshitaka compiled the “Map of Joseon” at the request of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Kuki’s map was essentially a color reproduction of “Map of the Eight Provinces” from the New and Expanded Complete Conspectus of the Territory of the Eastern Country (1530). The extant version of “Map of Joseon” was composed in 1872.
Ulleungdo and Dokdo are labeled in their Korean names, and both islands are labeled in the “Gangwon-do” addendum, which indicates Korean sovereignty. It is the first known example of Ulleungdo and Dokdo being labeled in their Korean names in a Japanese map.
5 “Complete Map of the Coasts of Great Japan”
Kim Jeong-ho (pen name Gosanja) was a geographer and cartographer in Korea who composed the Complete Map of Korea
(1861). Inō Tadataka, the founder of modern mapping in Japan, was his equivalent. Inō was born in 1745 and died in 1818. Kim was born in 1804, about sixty years after Inō. As a student of the astronomer Takahashi Yoshitoki, Inō studied western astronomy, calendars, and surveying. In 1800, he surveyed southeastern Hokkaido, and over a span of 19 years surveyed Japan in its entirety by traveling almost 35,000 kilometers. He compiled the results as the “Complete Map of the Coasts of Great Japan” (大日本沿海輿地全圖) in 1816. His compilation of maps proved so accurate that in the mid-nineteenth century, European powers attempted to create maps for the invasion of Japan, and simply used Inō’s maps instead. Inō’s maps were made possible by enormous support from the Edo shogunate and use of the Western triangulation method of survey.