• Dokdo in the East Sea
  • Educational material
  • Junior High School Version

Discovery Learning 1[Teacher Notes]

Names of the East Sea in the Three Kingdoms periodDalheul (Gosung)
Garaheul (Gansung)
Ikhyeon (Yangyang)
Hassla (Gangneung)
Siljik (Samcheok)
Ujinya, Pajo (Uljin)
Eumjeupbul (Angang)
Evidence of Dokdo’s sovereignty dates to the sixth century. Ulleungdo and Dokdo were in Usan prior to the Three Kingdoms period.
Usan was a mountainous region with very little flat land, and the majority of its citizens were farmers or fishermen. Although the level of culture among Usan people was low compared to that of people residing on the mainland, they frequently exchanged culture with Silla people. After conquering Usan, General Isabu of Silla annexed the area in 512.

Ulleungdo and Dokdo as recorded in History of the Three Kingdoms

History of the Three Kingdoms(1145 Compilation)History of the Three Kingdoms was compiled in 1145 by Kim Busik and other scholars after being commissioned by the king.
Usan, also known as Ulleungdo, was an island country in the East Sea and extended 50 kilometers in each direction from its center. In 512, the people of Usan relied on the island’s harsh environment for defense and refused to submit to Silla. General Isabu stated upon becoming the monarch of Hassla, “The people of Usan are foolish and stubborn, and they will not willfully surrender. Therefore, a scheme must be devised to force their submission.” Thus, General Isabu ordered the construction of wooden lions to carry aboard his ships and entered the waters of Usan. He proclaimed, “If you do not surrender, I will release these wild beasts upon your land for you to be trampled to your deaths.” Usan surrendered immediately.

Ulleungdo and Dokdo as recorded in History of Goryeo[Teacher Notes]

Material 1
History of Goryeo, vol. 4Compilation of History of Goryeo began in 1449 and was completed in 1451. This book organized historical and cultural information from the Goryeo period.
The northeastern Jurchens (from a northeastern area downstream of the Duman River, now known as Primorsky Krai and Jiandao) invaded and plundered Usan in 1018. This devastated Usan’s agriculture. The government supported Usan with food, farm equipment, and seeds during this period.
Figure 2
History of Goryeo, vol. 18, 1157, fifth month
In 1157, King Uijong learned of an island called Ureungdo in the East Sea that was known to have much fertile land for habitation. He dispatched Kim Yurip to verify the claim.
Discovery Learning 1
1. See Material 1 and state the reason for the government sending food and farming equipment to the State of Usan.[Answer]
2. See Figure 2 and state why the Goryeo government dispatched an official to Ulleungdo.[Answer]

Teacher Notes
Dokdo’s territorial records can be traced back to the sixth century, during the Three Kingdoms period. According to History of the Three Kingdoms, General Isabu of Silla annexed Usan in 512, and Usan paid tribute to Silla thereafter.
Teacher Notes
As during the Silla period, Usan paid tribute to Goryeo. After an attack by northeastern Jurchens in 1018, Usan faced difficulties in agriculture. Goryeo supported Usan by dispatching an official with farming equipment and seeds during this period. After the end of King Hyeonjong’s reign in 1031, research was conducted in the Ulleungdo area in order to send mainland people to the island.
1. The Goryeo government sent food and farm equipment to Usan because the northeastern Jurchens had invaded and plundered the land, devastating life there.
2. Ulleungdo and Dokdo were areas administered by the Goryeo government and considered part of the country.
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